heike kamerlingh onnes

Heike Kamerlingh Onnes

Heike Kamerlingh Onnes was a Dutch physicist who lived from 1853 to 1926. He is best known for his groundbreaking work on low-temperature physics, which earned him the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1913. In this article, we will explore the life and work of Heike Kamerlingh Onnes in detail.

Early Life and Education

Heike Kamerlingh Onnes was born on September 21, 1853, in Groningen, Netherlands. He was the son of Harm Kamerlingh Onnes, a brick manufacturer, and Anna Gerdina Coers. He studied at the University of Groningen, where he obtained his doctorate in 1879.

Research Career

Kamerlingh Onnes started his research career at the University of Groningen, where he worked as an assistant to the physicist Buys Ballot. In 1882, he was appointed as a professor of experimental physics at the University of Leiden, where he spent the rest of his career.

Low-Temperature Physics

Kamerlingh Onnes is best known for his work on low-temperature physics. In 1908, he succeeded in liquefying helium for the first time, which required cooling it to a temperature of -269 degrees Celsius. This achievement was a major breakthrough in the field of low-temperature physics and opened up new avenues of research.

He went on to study the properties of materials at low temperatures and discovered a phenomenon known as superconductivity. Superconductivity is the complete absence of electrical resistance in certain materials at very low temperatures. This discovery was a major milestone in physics and earned Kamerlingh Onnes the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1913.

Other Contributions

Kamerlingh Onnes made many other contributions to the field of physics during his career. He developed several new experimental techniques and instruments, including the dilatometer and the cryostat. He also studied the properties of other materials, such as metals and gases, at low temperatures.

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Legacy

Kamerlingh Onnes is remembered as one of the most important physicists of the 20th century. His work on low-temperature physics paved the way for many new discoveries and technologies, including MRI machines and particle accelerators. He also inspired many other physicists to pursue research in this field.

FAQs

What is Heike Kamerlingh Onnes famous for?

Heike Kamerlingh Onnes is famous for his work on low-temperature physics, including the liquefaction of helium and the discovery of superconductivity.

When was Heike Kamerlingh Onnes born?

Heike Kamerlingh Onnes was born on September 21, 1853.

Where did Heike Kamerlingh Onnes conduct his research?

Heike Kamerlingh Onnes conducted his research at the University of Leiden in the Netherlands.

What is superconductivity?

Superconductivity is the complete absence of electrical resistance in certain materials at very low temperatures.

What instruments did Heike Kamerlingh Onnes develop?

Heike Kamerlingh Onnes developed several new experimental techniques and instruments, including the dilatometer and the cryostat.

Conclusion

Heike Kamerlingh Onnes was a pioneering physicist who made many important contributions to the field of low-temperature physics. His discovery of superconductivity was a major milestone in physics and has led to many new discoveries and technologies. Although he passed away almost a century ago, his legacy continues to inspire physicists around the world to pursue new frontiers in science.